要意识到的事情

Python 字符串、Qt 字符串及 Unicode

PyQt4 uses the QString class to represent Unicode strings, and the QByteArray to represent byte arrays or strings. In Python v3 the corresponding native object types are str and bytes . In Python v2 the corresponding native object types are unicode and str .

PyQt4 does its best to automatically convert between objects of the various types. Explicit conversions can be easily made where necessary.

In some cases PyQt4 will not perform automatic conversions where it is necessary to distinguish between different overloaded methods.

For Python v3 the following conversions are done by default.

  • If Qt expects a char * (or a const version) then PyQt4 will accept a str or QString that contains only ASCII characters, a bytes QByteArray , or a Python object that implements the buffer protocol.
  • If Qt expects a char (or a const version) then PyQt4 will accept the same types as for char * and also require that a single character is provided.
  • If Qt expects a signed char * or an unsigned char * (or a const version) then PyQt4 will accept a bytes .
  • If Qt expects a signed char or an unsigned char (or a const version) then PyQt4 will accept a bytes of length 1.
  • If Qt expects a QString then PyQt4 will accept a str bytes that contains only ASCII characters, a QChar QByteArray .
  • If Qt expects a QByteArray then PyQt4 will also accept a str that contains only Latin-1 characters, or a bytes .

For Python v2 the following conversions are done by default.

  • If Qt expects a char * , signed char * or an unsigned char * (or a const version) then PyQt4 will accept a unicode or QString that contains only ASCII characters, a str QByteArray , or a Python object that implements the buffer protocol.
  • If Qt expects a char , signed char or an unsigned char (or a const version) then PyQt4 will accept the same types as for char * , signed char * and unsigned char * and also require that a single character is provided.
  • If Qt expects a QString then PyQt4 will accept a unicode str that contains only ASCII characters, a QChar QByteArray .
  • If Qt expects a QByteArray then PyQt4 will accept a unicode that contains only Latin-1 characters, or a str .

Note that the different behaviour between Python v2 and v3 is due to v3's reduced support for the buffer protocol.

垃圾收集

C++ does not garbage collect unreferenced class instances, whereas Python does. In the following C++ fragment both colours exist even though the first can no longer be referenced from within the program:

col = new QColor();
col = new QColor();
								

In the corresponding Python fragment, the first colour is destroyed when the second is assigned to col :

col = QtGui.QColor()
col = QtGui.QColor()
								

In Python, each colour must be assigned to different names. Typically this is done within class definitions, so the code fragment would be something like:

self.col1 = QtGui.QColor()
self.col2 = QtGui.QColor()
								

Sometimes a Qt class instance will maintain a pointer to another instance and will eventually call the destructor of that second instance. The most common example is that a QObject (and any of its sub-classes) keeps pointers to its children and will automatically call their destructors. In these cases, the corresponding Python object will also keep a reference to the corresponding child objects.

So, in the following Python fragment, the first QLabel is not destroyed when the second is assigned to lab because the parent QWidget still has a reference to it:

parent = QtGui.QWidget()
lab = QtGui.QLabel("First label", parent)
lab = QtGui.QLabel("Second label", parent)
								

多重继承

It is not possible to define a new Python class that sub-classes from more than one Qt class.

访问保护成员函数

When an instance of a C++ class is not created from Python it is not possible to access the protected member functions, or emit any signals, of that instance. Attempts to do so will raise a Python exception. Also, any Python methods corresponding to the instance's virtual member functions will never be called.

None and NULL

Throughout PyQt4, the None value can be specified wherever NULL is acceptable to the underlying C++ code.

Equally, NULL is converted to None whenever it is returned by the underlying C++ code.

支持 void *

PyQt4 (actually SIP) represents void * values as objects of type sip.voidptr . Such values are often used to pass the addresses of external objects between different Python modules. To make this easier, a Python integer (or anything that Python can convert to an integer) can be used whenever a sip.voidptr is expected.

A sip.voidptr may be converted to a Python integer by using the int() builtin function.

A sip.voidptr may be converted to a Python string by using its asstring() method. The asstring() method takes an optional integer argument which is the length of the data in bytes.

A sip.voidptr may also be given a size (ie. the size of the block of memory that is pointed to) by calling its setsize() method. If it has a size then it is also able to support Python's buffer protocol and behaves like a Python memoryview object so that the block of memory can be treated as a mutable list of bytes. It also means that the Python struct module can be used to unpack and pack binary data structures in memory, memory mapped files or shared memory.

super 和 PyQt4 类

In versions of PyQt4 earlier than v4.5 there were restrictions on the use of super with PyQt4 classes. These restrictions no longer apply with v4.5 and later.